Galaxy Center

Observations in the radio, infrared, x-ray and gamma ranges suggest that there are one or two supermassive black holes in the center of the galaxy.

Mysterious regions of the universe

In the center of the Galaxy, at a distance of ~ 10 kiloparsecs from the Sun, there is probably the closest to us and so far mysterious "machine", similar to those operating in the centers of superpowerful sources of energy release in the Universe - in the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars. The center of the galaxy is immeasurably closer to us than distant quasars and galaxies, so its study makes it possible to obtain a lot of data on the physical nature of superpowerful sources of energy, to begin to investigate the influence of the central regions of galaxies on stars and gas clouds, in order to finally understand the principle of operation and structure of such "Machines", their role in the formation and development of galaxies.

The radiation power of the nucleus of our Galaxy is about 10 ^ 41 erg / s, and the energy of the explosions that took place there for the last billion years does not exceed 10 ^ 58 erg - a million and a thousand times less than the corresponding values ​​for the most active galaxies and quasars. It is now accepted that both the center of the Galaxy and the cores of active galaxies and quasars have a common nature, differing only in mass, radiation power and the stage of evolution experienced. Most likely, the central “machine” that provides activity for quasars and galactic nuclei is supermassive black holes.

The main source of energy release of a black hole can be the energy of its rotation. For a black hole with a mass of 100 million solar masses, the total energy supply of its rotation can be ~ 5 · 10 ^ 61 erg. As is known, the supermassive black hole itself radiates very little due to quantum processes, and such weak radiation cannot be detected. She also cannot eject substance from herself.

But if in the vicinity of a rotating black hole there are, for example, clusters of stars, then the stars, flying near the black hole, will burst under the action of tidal forces or collapse as a result of collisions, turning into gas. This gas with a magnetic field frozen in it gradually falls to a black hole. At the same time, there are processes that slow down the rotation of a black hole and generate superpowerful electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particle beams (up to ultrarelativistic energies).

Black holes in the centers of galaxies and quasars were formed either long before the appearance of galaxies, or in the process of their evolution. In the first case, black holes served as condensation centers for galaxies. In the second, black holes appeared in the geometric centers of galaxies, where the density of stars and gas was highest, and, consequently, the process of gravitational condensation of a supermassive body is most likely. The mass of the central black hole should increase as the surrounding substance falls into it. In the centers of galaxies, not only single, but also double black holes may appear, which are formed as a result of collisions of galaxies or during condensation of a rotating gas cloud.

These are the modern ideas about possible processes occurring in the central regions of galaxies. However, there is no direct evidence of the existence of supermassive black holes and the correctness of the presented ideas ... To find the details of a specific branch, including opening hours and the address, use our website open4u.co.uk. Thomas cook opening times in all localities