Mechanization and automation of the hull and ship parts

Improving the technical and operational qualities of ships can be successfully implemented by improving the characteristics of existing devices, systems and equipment, as well as mainly due to a significant expansion of the range of operations to be mechanized and automated in the following elements: loading and unloading dry cargo, bulk and cargo passenger ships; management of the operation of mechanisms and pipelines of ship-wide systems, ventilation systems — ship-wide, engine-boiler rooms and cargo rooms; control over the amount of liquid cargo, ballast, temperature of bulk cargo, condition of gases and atmosphere in cargo holds and tanks; mooring, anchoring and towing ships by sea; cleaning, washing and drying cargo spaces, cleaning decks and hull elements from rust, old paint, ice and dirt, cleaning and caring for ship rooms and devices; control over the strength, stability and draft of vessels under operating conditions.

At present, a number of mechanisms and devices are being mastered for new-built ships using automation elements. Automatic mooring winches, mechanized hatch covers, ship cranes, washing machines, cargo hold air drying systems, etc. were developed. A new type of hull design was developed with a deck opening ratio of 0.65–0.75, to the maximum extent adapted for high-speed loading and unloading piece cargo, a draft of an apparatus for drying cargo has been created, thermal probes and multipoint thermoelectric alarms, a device for monitoring stability and draft of a vessel, etc. have been developed.

However, these works do not cover comprehensively issues of mechanization and automation, therefore, in the near future, research and experimental work should be carried out in the areas of creating new types of universal use vessels for the transport of general, piece, grain, timber and other cargoes, to the maximum extent adapted for high-speed processing by means of port mechanization; development and development of automatic mooring winches, line-throwers, inflatable life rafts and plastic boats, hatch covers with local remote control; creation of a ship crane with an automatic drive and a cargo account operating at elevated heel angles, an electric cargo winch with a remote control; manufacturing of counting-decisive instruments for monitoring the strength, stability and draft of vessels in any operating conditions with giving signals to the ship's central control station; development of the nomenclature, experimental and industrial development of samples of cables, parts, devices, personal items and panels of high-strength and fire-resistant plastics, etc.