Every Polish sailor must receive a certificate.

A subject of particular pride is the equipment of training courts, on which every cadet of the naval school floats at least once a year. Built on funds collected by the public, the sailing ship "Gift of Youth" is equipped with the most sophisticated equipment. It is not surprising that five ships of this type, intended for the training of maritime personnel, purchased from Poland the Soviet Union, Bulgaria and France.

A high world assessment was also due to the fact that the Polish system of training marine personnel pays great attention to the formation of the characters of the sea people. On training flights on a frigate or modestly equipped small training vessels, future officers master all the operations required on the vessel, from the simplest sailor jobs to command of the vessel.

In the training of personnel of the Polish fleet, the principle that a good commander and chief must first learn to be subordinate and know everything related to the maritime profession.

After graduation, seafarers can improve their skills not only in practice. Every Polish sailor - from cook to sailor - must receive a certificate from the Gdynia Rescue Service Center, confirming his ability to act in extreme situations, be it a storm, shipwreck or fire on a ship.

In order to complete the picture of educational and research activities in the Polish maritime education system, it should be added that more than 600 teachers work in maritime higher educational institutions of Poland, mainly with diplomas of various maritime specialties, including about twenty professors, several dozen associate professors and candidates of science. Each year, university laboratories receive more than twenty patents for their inventions and make hundreds of rationalization proposals. On average, higher and secondary naval schools graduate 1,200 young specialists with diplomas of officers and qualified sailors. Today, the backbone of personnel is formed, which will manage the fleet and ports of the Polish People's Republic in the 21st century.

It is said that shipping arose even earlier than agriculture. And it is quite possible that the ancient man who sailed into the sea without special economic needs, but simply attracted by curiosity, can be considered the first cruise passenger.

These propaganda film shows were funded by non-American capitalists, as you can immediately think, although it was their company that lured the East European poor. No, the organizers of the film campaign were mainly German shipping companies. Expenses paid off a hundredfold - the men dumbfounded by Hamburg held on to the handle of German Lloyd, like children for a mother.

Is there cheap labor there, back is empty or in any case unloaded vessels? Such irrational use of tonnage did not fit into the logic of capitalist entrepreneurship. Naturally, where the “excess” tonnage appeared, the competition also became aggravated.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia defines cruise as a sea voyage, and foreign sources add: for the purpose of rest, calling at several ports. As for the number of ports of call, today this condition has already become optional: even “cruises to nowhere” are organized - without calling at ports. In the Baltic there are numerous car ferry lines with a level of service not lower, but even higher than on purely cruise ships.

In 1876, two Norwegian coastal shipping companies, Bergensk and Nordenfjeldsk, began regular cruise flights from the picturesque Norwegian coast to the north to observe the midnight sun. These companies, united later, formed the Royal Cruise Line (RKL). In our time, RKL is known as one of the leading operators in the cruise market.

In 1885, the passenger ship Ceylon, owned by P & O, was fully involved in cruises: in the summer it operated off the coast of Northern Europe, and in the winter it sailed to the Mediterranean Sea. In 1886, the steamer "St. Rognwald" for 50 passengers made 10 cruise flights from Scotland to the shores of Norway. mr bit casino бездепозитный бонус